Adler, David. A Picture Book of Louis Braille. New York: Holiday House, 1997 (Print). For young children. Available from National Braille Press in print/Braille format.

Benedek, Thomas G., "Gonorrhea and the Beginnings of Clinical Research Ethics," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48.1 (2005) 54-73.

Bernard Becker Collection in Ophthalmology catalog, Washington University School of Medicine Library, St. Louis, Missouri.

Bickel, Lennard. Triumph Over Darkness: The Life of Louis Braille. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1988 (Large print). Adult biography.

Burbeck, James. "Napoleonic Artillery: Firepower Comes of Age," War Times Journal.

"A Century of Braille," New York Times, 23 June 1952: 18.

City of St. Louis, Missouri. St. Louis City History

Davidson, Margaret. Louis Braille: The Boy Who Invented Books for the Blind. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1971. (Print)

Duxbury Systems Louis Braille. Short biography, plus an excellent introduction to the Braille system's affinity with computers.

Farrell, Gabriel. The Story of Blindness, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1956. (Print)

Franks, Julie "Historical and Current Perspectives: Review of Literature," Thesis extract, University of Central England and Royal National Institute for the Blind School of Rehabilitation Studies, 2005. On the Internet at

Freedman, Russell. Out of Darkness: The Story of Louis Braille. New York: Clarion Books, 1997. (Print)

Fundación Braille del Uruguay (Biography, Spanish text) Photos of the Braille home today, the workbench where the fateful accident occurred, and Louis himself, who was an early subject of photography.

Green, Gill. "History of Piano Tuning" Association of Blind Piano Tuners, United Kingdom Piano Page.

Halsell, Paul. "The Crusades: Selected Sources," Internet Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University.

Haüy, Valentin. An Essay on the Education of the Blind, Callahan Museum, American Printing House for the Blind, translated by Thomas Blacklock. Edinburgh: A. Chapman and Co., 1793.

"Helen Keller Pays Tribute to Braille," New York Times, 22 June 1952: 20.

Heller, Robert. "Educating the Blind in the Age of Enlightenment: Growing Points of a Social Service," Medical History 23 (1979): 392-403.

Hernandez, John. "History of Reading Codes for the Blind," New York Institute for Special Education.

Jernigan, Kenneth, "A Visit to Louis Braille's Birthplace," and "Facts about Louis Braille's Birthplace," Braille Monitor Volume 37, No. 7, July, 1994.

Keller, Helen. "Braille, the Magic Wand of the Blind," Correspondence and Writings on Education, American Foundation for the Blind.

Kiefer, James. "Louis IX, King of France," Christian Biographies, Rowan University.

Lantier, Patricia and Beverley Birch. Louis Braille. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens Children's Books, 1991 (Print) For late elementary and middle-school readers.

Les associés du site web Louis Vierne, Louis Vierne Website.

"Les Spectacles de la foire d'Emile Campardon" Volume 1, 1877. Ed. Barry Russell. Calendrier électronique des spectacles sous l’ancien régime et sous la révolution (CESAR).

Lorimer, Pamela. "A Critical Evaluation of the Historical Development of the Tactile Modes of Reading and an Analysis and Evaluation of Researches Carried Out in Endeavors to Make the Braille Code Easier to Read and Write," Doctoral thesis, University of Birmingham, 1996. On the Internet at the International Braille Research Center.

Merriam-Webster Online On-line dictionary from Merriam-Webster. Enter "brail" to read the derivation.

Missouri School for the Blind History Page.

Neimark, Anne E. Touch of Light: The Story of Louis Braille. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1970. (Print)

The Paris Pages

Plain-Japy, Frédéric. "Origins and Genesis of Braille in the World," 62nd International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions General Conference, 1996. (Speech in French)

Polt, Richard. Classic Typewriter Page.

Retarides, James. The Riverside Church.

Robb, Graham. Victor Hugo: A Biography. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1997 (Print)

Roblin, Jean. The Reading Fingers: The Life of Louis Braille. Trans. Ruth G. Mandalian. New York: American Foundation for the Blind, 1955, and Edmonds, Washington: Louis Braille Center, 1993. Available in print and Braille versions.

Royal National Institute for the Blind Publications Page

Schama, Simon. Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989. (Print)

Wagg, Henry J., assisted by Mary G. Thomas. (1932) A Chronological Summary of Work Done for the Blind from the Earliest Records up to the Year 1930., London National Institute for the Blind, 1932. Online book at the Royal National Institute for the Blind's Publications Archive.

Weiner, Dora B. The Citizen-Patient in Revolutionary and Imperial Paris. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press, 1993. (Print)

Wheatley, Edward, "Blindness, Discipline, and Reward: Louis IX and the Foundation of the Hospice des Quinze Vingts," Disability Studies Quarterly 22.4 (2002): 194-212.